Including an interesting looking talk on prosthetic joint infection...
ICM Research Seminar
Wednesday 29th March 2017
(Dr M. White, Prof J. Shaw)
Evaluation of β-cell plasticity in Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by dysfunction of insulin producing beta-cells in the pancreatic islets. Until now, cell death due to autoimmunity has been considered as the primary mechanism underlying beta-cell dysfunction in T1DM. An evolving concept in type 2 diabetes is that changes in beta-cell identity, rather than death, contribute to beta-cell dysfunction. This is characterised by loss of end-differentiated proteins and mis-expression of other, non-beta-cell hormones e.g. glucagon. This study aims at exploring whether such beta-cell plasticity events occur in T1DM.
Dr Olivier Govaere
(Prof Q. Anstee, Prof A. Daly, Prof F. Oakley)
Elucidating Pathways of Steatohepatitis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease occurring in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption that ranges from isolated hepatic triglyceride accumulation (steatosis); through hepatic triglyceride accumulation plus inflammation and hepatocyte injury (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH); and ultimately progresses to fibrosis/cirrhosis and potentially hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a common condition, strongly associated with the Metabolic Syndrome (obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia) and characterised by substantial inter-patient variability in severity and rate of progression. Reflecting the relatively indolent course of even advanced liver fibrosis, clinically relevant NAFLD frequently presents in the 5/6th decade and is a common cause of liver dysfunction within the ageing UK population.
Our research aims to better understand the pathogenesis of NAFLD by unravelling underlying pathways using a high-throughput RNA sequencing and DNA methylation approach. In addition, we have established an ex-vivo human model to validate our findings.
(Prof G. Burgess, Dr N. Jakubovics, Mr M. Reed)
Improved diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection using a marine nuclease
NucB an endonuclease produced from a marine bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an effective enzyme capable of biofilm disruption by degrading extracellular DNA which is recognised as an essential component of the biofilm matrix. This research project evaluated the use of NucB to aid in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection, which is often challenging due to the bacteria's ability to form biofilm encapsulated communities on the prosthetic joint surface thus avoiding detection by standard microbiological culture techniques.
Chair: Zelal Kharaba
Dental Lecture Theatre F, Medical School